This theory proposes two orders of Time: Absolute-Time and Relative-Time.
Absolute-Time is the absolute distance between all subsequent events and the very first event, i.e. the Big Bang – the origin of both Time and the universe. This distance is Absolute because it is exactly the same for all of these subsequent events.
Relative-Time is the respective distances between all of these subsequent events. These distances are relative to the observer, but all of these events will share exactly the same distance from the first event, the Big Bang. Therefore, all subsequent events share exactly the same Absolute-Time.
In this theory, Time is interpreted as the ‘distance’ between events in the sense that Time enables there to be a connection between events. If Time did not exist, then all events would be ‘frozen’ in 3D space and unable to interact with each other in anyway. Absolute-Time, therefore, is the 4D space in which events can move forward through Relative-Time in order to connect with one another when in 3D space.
Both orders of Time are created as our universe of 3 spatial dimensions expands into a 4D hyper-space. Our 3D universe is driven through this hyper-space by the kinetic energy derived from the Big Bang.
Therefore, by extension, Time actually is kinetic energy. This becomes very apparent when not ‘at rest’, i.e. when subject to a force other than just the forward movement of Time. Owing to the curvature of space created by the Earth’s mass, all human beings experience the ‘force’ of gravity, that being the Earth’s resistance to our continual forward momentum through Time towards the centre of the Earth. We still progress through the universe at exactly the same speed of Absolute-Time but we are in resistance to this speed because we are not in an inertial frame of reference. So, for example, when we walk up stairs, or sharply change direction in a car, the additional pressure we experience is our increased resistance to this forward momentum of Absolute-Time. If we resist this momentum too severely, e.g. by accelerating at a speed in excess of 10G in any direction, then this resistance will result in death. In the process, our Relative-Time might well have changed, as according to a clock, for example, but in terms of Absolute-Time, there can be no change because Absolute-Time is absolutely inflexible.
2D Relative-Time is how we believe we experience Time in our 3D universe; 3D Absolute-Time exists hidden away from us in 4D hyper-space.
This 4D hyper-space is metaphorically presented in the diagram below as a Time Chamber.
When Einstein referred to Time, he was referring to 2D Relative-Time only.
This is why Einstein’s theories deal with Relativity, rather than Absolutivity.
NOTE: When reading this, it will help enormously if you constantly hold in mind that TIME has no depth. Its ‘thickness’ is slimmer than the most miniscule unit of a second that you could ever devise. TIME is always NOW, and it is always moving out into hyper-space (the ‘Time Chamber’) at the Speed of Time itself. You can only live in the NOW. You cannot exist even a zeptosecond behind or ahead of TIME.
ABSOLUTE TIME is a hyper-space for our universe to move through (here referred to as the Time Chamber) and it has a past of approximately 13.8 billion years. However, despite the time that has passed, you cannot travel back in TIME. You are forever ‘trapped’ in the ever-hurtling-forward moment of NOW.
In my previous thought experiment ‘Is Gravity actually the elusive Dark Matter?’ I proposed a theory of TIME in which the expansion of the universe (expansion of the Inner-verse) simultaneously creates both Time and Space. I have since re-thought this proposition and am proposing that there are two types of ‘TIME’: a flat but expanding ‘skin’ of 2D RELATIVE-TIME, indicated by the blue circle on the diagram, and the ABSOLUTE-TIME of the Time Chamber, as indicated by the white arrows emanating outwards from the Big Bang in all possible directions.
According to Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity, for an individual travelling at the speed of light personal time would stand still, i.e. Einstein’s visionary ‘travelling on a light beam’ thought experiment in which the passenger sees that the clock hands have ceased to move as he/she speeds away from the clock at light speed. Thus travelling at the speed of light cancels out the speed of TIME as, according to Einstein, both speeds are equivalent. Now, presumably, this should be true no matter which direction the passenger travels in our universe of three spatial dimensions … which is very confusing.
However, what if TIME existed on two levels: a flat 2D plane of Relative-Time, the blue circle in the diagram, and a 3D plane of Absolute-Time which reaches back to the Big Bang, the white outward facing arrows in the diagram?
In this thought experiment, I am proposing that our universe of 3D space expands outwards from a single point, the Big Bang – so, not too controversial thus far. However, I am also proposing that this outward explosion of our universe from a single point approximately 13.8 billion years ago is taking place inside a much larger sealed spherical chamber which also contains an additional space for our universe to expand into, i.e. hyper-space. Our universe explodes outwards in all spherical directions from a point situated exactly in the middle of the Time Chamber and, as the perimeter of our universe expands, we travel outwards from the centre of the Time Chamber and, therefore, through one of the Absolute-Time directions of the Time Chamber, i.e. one of the white arrows on the diagram.
Thus, the continual outward expansion of our universe enables us to experience TIME, but it does not create TIME as I previously suggested. Consequently, the speed at which we experience TIME is set by the rate of our universe’s expansion through the Time Chamber away from the Big Bang. A second would thus be a measure of our 3D universe’s expansion outwards from the central point in the Time Chamber – the Big Bang.
In the universe of 3D space on which we exist, light travels towards us across the expanding blue circle of 2D Relative-Time. Our outward linear surge away from the Big Bang (one of the white arrows on the diagram) stretches our 3D spatial reality to the north, east, south and west of the ever-expanding 2D Relative-Time ‘blue balloon skin’. As this 2D Relative-Time ‘balloon’ is inflated, and so expanded across all compass points, so the stars in the night sky appear to be receding into the distance because all locations on this ‘blue skin’ are increasingly being pushed further apart.
Absolute-Time travel is thus impossible because we cannot counteract the speed/direction of our progression through the Time Chamber away from the Big Bang (i.e. the white arrows on the diagram). If we increase our speed across the expanding 2D Relative-Time surface (the expanding blue circle) all we are doing is racing against the speed of the expansion of this surface – and thus not counteracting our linear progression away from the Big Bang as indicated by the white arrows.
So, if this is true, then Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity is a partial understanding of Light and Time, despite its predictive accuracy.
Personally, I have struggled with the idea of two atomic clocks being in marginally different Time ‘zones’ because one of them is hurtling through space at thousands of miles per hour and the other has remained ‘stationary’ on the Earth. Clearly, if the racing clock is fractionally time dilated owing to the speed of its travel, even by a nanosecond, then we should not be able to perceive its existence anymore. After all, if it has left our Time ‘zone’, then why is it still here for us to experience? This does not make sense.
Perhaps the reality is that the speeding clock has chased the speed of light across the flatness of expanding 2D Relative-Time (the blue circle on the diagram), but it has certainly not counteracted any of our Absolute-Time progression away from the Big Bang in the Time Chamber, i.e. the white arrows on the diagram. The time dilation, therefore, is an illusion. The speed of the clock in our spatially 3D universe is catching up with the speed of time on the expanding 2D plane of Relative-Time only, i.e. the expanding blue perimeter in the diagram. It is chasing along the flat 2D Relative-Time skin of the expanding ‘blue balloon skin’. But we have mistakenly believed that what we were measuring with these clocks was differentials in Absolute-Time, when we were really measuring differentials in Relative-Time.
In terms of Absolute-Time i.e. the distance travelled in a straight line from the Big Bang to the ever-expanding blue ring in the Time Chamber diagram (as indicated by the white arrows), the speeding clock is exactly the same distance from the Big Bang as the stationary clock, as is everything else in our universe of 3D space – which exists on the expanding blue line. Remember, 2D Relative-Time sits flatly on the surface of the expanding ‘blue balloon skin’. So the clock that hurtled through 2D Relative-Time will show a minuscule shift into the past of 2D Relative-Time, but as its position in Absolute-Time has not, and cannot, be altered, it is still in exactly the same Absolute-Time position that everything else we experience is in, i.e. it is still on the infinitesimally ‘thin blue skin’ of the 2D Relative-Time ‘balloon’.
However, the fact that the two clocks can register a fractional time disparity in respect of each other on the flat skin of 2D Relative-Time suggests that every person’s experience of our universe is unique– and, therefore, that everything that we seem to perceive as one objective universe is, in fact, a subjective reality consisting of many personal universes in juxtaposition.
However, we all do experience exactly the same continuum of Absolute-Time.
Under this model of Space-Time, it also follows that when the light from a distant star reaches us after X million light years, and we see that star as it was X million light years ago, the source of that light (the star) has been (and still is) travelling away from us along the expanding ‘blue balloon skin’ of 2D Relative Time at exactly the same speed as the light from the star travels towards us along this expanding ‘blue balloon skin’. The radiation from the Big Bang works in exactly the same way. If this were not the case, we would never be able to ‘look back in time’ when we wonderingly gaze up at the stars. Of course, when we ‘look back in time’, we are really looking across the ever-expanding ‘blue balloon skin’ of 2D Relative Time.
So the true measure of TIME, i.e. Absolute Time, is the expanding straight (white) line in the Time Chamber between us and the point of origin for Absolute-Time – the Big Bang.
GRAVITY – theory 1
Presumably the infusion of gravity is from the centre of the Inner-verse, i.e. our universe of 3D space, because the Inner-verse is expanding in all directions. As gravity is being infused from the centre, and as the rate of flow is precisely calibrated to ensure the integrity of the low pressure environment, the absolute stillness of the overall volume of gravity would never be disturbed –and galaxies would be floated apart without the need for any additional ‘dark’ force. This rate of expansion would speed up as the volume of the Inner-verse increased, thus making the galaxies appear to ‘fly’ apart at an exponential rate, but the rate of expansion from the perimeter of the Inner-verse back to the origin in the Time Chamber, i.e. the Big Bang, would remain constant.
Also, could it be the case that gravity is also responsible for our Inner-verse’s rate of expansion, i.e. gravity is also ‘dark energy’? As the flow of gravity from the Outer-verse increases in proportion to the increase of area in the rapidly expanding Inner-verse, perhaps the expansion of the ever-increasing volume of gravity actually inflates the membrane bounding the Inner-verse whilst the membrane simultaneously maintains the fixed level of gravitational pressure? It would be possible for this simultaneous function to happen if the Inner-verse was expanding at the Speed of Time and the ‘membrane’ was actually the extreme outer edge of the Inner-verse’s expansion. As nothing can exceed the Speed of Time, gravity would not be able to leak out beyond this extreme outer limit and so could form an expandable seal.
GRAVITY – theory 2
If the sealed Time Chamber was also full of gravitational pressure as well as the 4th dimensional space of ABSOLUTE TIME, then the system would be entirely self-regulating once the Big Bang had been set in motion. This kinetic motion would, in fact, be the equally elusive ‘dark’ energy.
If the Time Chamber was made out of a specially reinforced transparent material, then the entire experiment of our existence could be observed and recorded.
But, by WHOM?